Adenovirus E1A mediates its effects on cellular transformation and transcription by interacting with critical cellular proteins involved in cell growth and differentiation. The amino terminus of E1A binds to CBP/p300 and associated histone acetyltransferases such as P/CAF. The carboxyl terminus binds to the carboxyl-terminal binding protein (CtBP), which associates with histone deacetylases. We show that 12S E1A can be acetylated by p300 and P/CAF and map one of the acetylation sites to Lys-239. This Lys residue is adjacent to the consensus CtBP binding motif, PXDLS. Mutation of Lys-239 to Gln or Ala blocks CtBP binding in vitro and disrupts the E1A-CtBP interaction in vivo. Peptide competition assays demonstrated that the interaction of E1A with CtBP is also blocked by Lys-239 acetylation. Supporting a functional role for Lys-239 in CtBP binding, mutation of this residue to Ala decreases the ability of E1A to block cAMP-regulated enhancer (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-stimulated gene expression. Finally, we demonstrate that Lys-239 is acetylated in cells by using an antibody directed against an acetyl-Lys-239 E1A peptide. CtBP interacts with a wide variety of other transcriptional repressors through the PXDLS motif, and, in many instances, this motif is followed by a Lys residue. We suggest that acetylation of this residue by histone acetyltransferases, and the consequent disruption of repressor complexes, might be a general mechanism for gene activation.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Dec 19 2000
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