Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV-2) is a leading candidate vector for gene therapy. Cell entry starts with attachment to a primary receptor, Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) before binding to a co-receptor. Here, cryo-electron microscopy provides direct visualization of the virus-HSPG interactions. Single particle analysis was performed on AAV-2 complexed with a 17 kDa heparin fragment at 8.3 Å resolution. Heparin density covers the shoulder of spikes surrounding viral 3-fold symmetry axes. Previously implicated, positively charged residues R448/585, R451/588 and R350/487 from another subunit cluster at the center of the heparin footprint. The footprint is much more extensive than apparent through mutagenesis, including R347/484, K395/532 and K390/527 that are more conserved, but whose roles have been controversial. It also includes much of a region proposed as a co-receptor site, because prior studies had not revealed heparin interactions. Heparin density bridges over the viral 3-fold axes, indicating multi-valent attachment to symmetry-related binding sites.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - Mar 15 2009|
- Electron microscopy
- Gene therapy
- Heparan sulfate
ASJC Scopus subject areas