Ambient air pollution and cardiovascular malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986-2003

Matthew J. Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Adolfo Correa, Mark D. Reller, William T. Mahle, Tiffany J. Riehle-Colarusso, Lorenzo D. Botto, W. Dana Flanders, James A. Mulholland, Csaba Siffel, Michele Marcus, Paige E. Tolbert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3-7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks' gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986-March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformations. Ambient 8-hour maximum ozone and 24-hour average carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with an average aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10), and sulfur dioxide measurements were obtained from centrally located stationary monitors. Temporal associations between these pollutants and daily risks of secundum atrial septal defect, aortic coarctation, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, valvar pulmonary stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, conotruncal defects, left ventricular outflow tract defect, and right ventricular outflow defect were modeled by using Poisson generalized linear models. A statistically significant association was observed between PM10 and patent ductus arteriosus (for an interquartile range increase in PM10 levels, risk ratio=1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.31). Of the 60 associations examined in the primary analysis, no other significant associations were observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1004-1014
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Air pollution
  • Heart defects, congenital

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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