American Society of Plastic Surgeons Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline: Eyelid Surgery for Upper Visual Field Improvement

Kenneth K. Kim, Mark S. Granick, Gregory A. Baum, Francis Beninger, Kenneth V. Cahill, Katelyn C. Donnelly, Ashton A. Kaidi, Ajaipal S. Kang, Lauren Loeding, Myriam Loyo, Parit A. Patel, Jason Roostaeian, Goretti Ho Taghva, George M. Varkarakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: A group of experts from different disciplines was convened to develop guidelines for the management of upper visual field impairments related to eyelid ptosis and dermatochalasis. The goal was to provide evidence-based recommendations to improve patient care. Methods: A multidisciplinary group of experts representing their specialty organizations was selected. A systematic literature review was performed including topics regarding documentation of the underlying cause for visual field impairment, selection of an appropriate surgical repair, assessment of the type of anesthesia, the use of adjunctive brow procedures, and follow-up assessments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology process was used to evaluate the relevant studies. Clinical practice recommendations were developed using BRIDGE-Wiz (Building Recommendations In a Developers' Guideline Editor) software. Results: Each topic area was assessed. A clinical recommendation was made, and the relevant literature was discussed. Conclusions: The review of the literature revealed varied complication rates and diverse treatment modalities for the correction of upper visual field deficit.Strong recommendations could not be made in most topic areas because of a paucity of methodologically sound studies in the literature. More rigorously designed studies are needed to measure outcomes of interest, with fewer sources of potential error or bias. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419E-434E
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


Dive into the research topics of 'American Society of Plastic Surgeons Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline: Eyelid Surgery for Upper Visual Field Improvement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this