Amniotic fluid and the umbilical cord: The fetal milieu and lifeline

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Amniotic fluid volume should be routinely assessed in every second and third trimester case. A review of amniotic fluid physiology and techniques for ultrasound evaluation of fluid volume is presented. The causes and significance of oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios are stressed. Umbilical cord abnormalities are often incidently observed at the time of amniotic fluid evaluation. The clinical significance of some common umbilical cord abnormalities such as a two-vessel cord and nuchal cord are discussed. Other, more uncommon entities such as cord mass lesions are also reviewed. Finally, the role of cord Doppler interrogation in determining fetal well-being is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-369
Number of pages15
JournalSeminars in Ultrasound CT and MRI
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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