Cluster analysis of patients with ocular surface disease, blepharitis, and dry eye

William D. Mathers, Dongseok Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Objective: To develop a classification system for blepharitis and dry eye based on a classification-tree model of a large group of subjects who were given a variety of objective physiologic tests. Methods: We evaluated 513 subjects, some healthy and some with blepharitis and dry eye, with tests for tear volume, tear flow, and tear turnover and the Schirmer test for dry eye. Meibomian gland function was evaluated by meibomian gland lipid expression for lipid volume and lipid viscosity, evaporation, and eyelid transillumination for meibomian gland drop out. We subjected these data to cluster analysis and formulated a classification tree. Main Outcome Measure: The outcome measure of this study was the statistically valid groups of subjects with and without ocular surface symptoms identified by their physiologic characteristics. Results: Cluster analysis most successfully grouped subjects by initially dividing them into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of gland drop out and then by lipid viscosity and volume, Schirmer test results, and evaporation. The analysis created 9 categories. This division created an objective classification system that was found to have clinical relevance. Normal subjects were distributed across several groups. Conclusions: Using a classification tree, blepharitis and dry eye can be classified with objective physiologic tests into clinically relevant groups that have common characteristics. The analysis establishes the central role of meibomian gland dysfunction in blepharitis and demonstrates the diverse characteristics of the normal population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1700-1704
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of ophthalmology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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