Co-occurrent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee in healthy, community-living men and women.

T. P. Carmody, C. S. Brischetto, J. D. Matarazzo, R. P. O'Donnell, W. E. Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Previous studies have examined intra-individual aggregation in the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee by examining the co-occurrent use of any pair of these three substances. A recent literature review failed to find a single investigation that studied use of all three in the same sample. In the present study, co-occurrent use of all three of these substances was examined in crossvalidated subsamples of 226 male and 245 female healthy, community-living, middle-class Americans. A log-linear analysis was used to compare the proportion of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers categorized as users of more or less amounts of coffee and alcohol. Although most of the intercorrelations were not strong, the results indicate that for both sexes, smokers and ex-smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to drink greater amounts of alcohol and coffee. Furthermore, for smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers, a majority of individuals who reported drinking more alcohol also reported drinking more coffee. Interestingly, the coffee and alcohol consumption levels of ex-smokers resembled those of smokers more than those of nonsmokers. Also, ex-smokers reported drinking more wine and decaffeinated coffee than either smokers or nonsmokers. Finally, the number of cigarettes smoked per day (daily quantity) was positively related to total alcohol and coffee consumption in men, but not in women. Further studies are recommended to examine the role of individual differences in the development, maintenance, and modification of these three appetitive habits and their co-occurrence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-335
Number of pages13
JournalHealth psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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