Comparative analysis of brain protection by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists after transient focal ischemia in cats

Masayuki Miyabe, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Toshiaki Nishikawa, Raymond C. Koehler, Richard J. Traystman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the administration of the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2R,4R,5S-(2- amino-4,5-(1,2-cyclohexyl)-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid) (NPC 17742) or cis-4- (phosphonomethyl) piperidine-2-carboxylic acid (CGS 19755) or the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), at the appropriate doses, would all have efficacy in decreasing early postischemic brain injury in a feline model of transient focal ischemia. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal trial. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: Forty mixed-breed cats. Interventions: Halothane-anesthetized cats underwent 90 mins of left middle cerebral artery occlusion plus 4 hrs of reperfusion. At 75 mins of ischemia, control cats received intravenous saline (n = 10). Experimental cats (n = 10 in each group) were treated with NPC 17742 (5 mg/kg bolus and 2.5 mg/kg/hr throughout reperfusion), MK-801 (5 mg/kg intravenous bolus), or CGS 19755 (40 mg/kg intravenous bolus) in a randomized fashion. Measurements and Main Results: Microsphere-determined blood flow to the ipsilateral inferior temporal cortex and caudate nucleus decreased to the same extent during ischemia, and recovered to the same extent during early reperfusion, in the four groups. Triphenyltetrazolium-determined injury volume of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus in cats treated with NPC 17742 (105 ± 25 [SEM] mm3), MK-801 (97 ± 22 mm3), and CGS 19755 (97 ± 13 mm3) was less than in control cats (198 ± 21 mm3). Hemisphere injury volumes with NPC 17742 (1209 ± 405 mm3) and MK- 801 (1338 ± 395 mm3) were less than that value in controls (2193 ± 372 mm3), whereas injury volume with CGS 19755 (1553 ± 519 mm3) treatment did not attain significance (p < .09). Conclusions: NMDA receptor activation during reperfusion may contribute to the progression of injury in ischemic border regions after 90 mins of transient focal ischemia in the cat. At the doses chosen, there appear to be no major differences in therapeutic efficacy for competitive and noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1037-1043
Number of pages7
JournalCritical care medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • CGS 19755
  • Cerebral blood flow
  • Excitatory amino acids
  • MK-801
  • Middle cerebral artery occlusion
  • NPC 17742
  • Sematosensory evoked potential

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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