CRISIS ventilator: A 3D printed option for ventilator surge in mass respiratory pandemics

S. James El Haddi, Alex Brito, Xiao Yue Han, Evan Fontaine, Whitney Menzel, Dennis Child, Michelle Kenny, Stephanie Nonas, Albert Chi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic revealed flaws in the stockpiling and distribution of ventilators. In this study, we assessed the durability, sterilizability, and performance of a 3D-printed ventilator. Methods: SLS-printed devices were dropped from 1.83 m and autoclaved before evaluation on a COVID-19 simulated patient. The respiratory performance of an extrusion-printed device was studied using a variable compliance model. Ranges of sustainable respiratory rates were evaluated as a function of tidal volume. Results: Autoclaving and dropping the device did not negatively impact minute ventilation or PIP for sustained ventilation. Equivalence was significant across all measures except for comparing the autoclaved and dropped with p = 0.06. Extrusion produced ventilators achieved minute ventilation ranging from 4.1 to 12.2 L/min for all simulated compliances; there was an inverse correlation between tidal volume and respiratory rate. Conclusion: The CRISIS ventilator is a durable, sterilizable, and reusable 3D-printed ventilator using off-the-shelf materials which could be employed variety of adult lung diseases. Further in-vivo testing is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-575
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Pandemic
  • Ventilator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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