Critical determinants of hypothalamic appetitive neuropeptide development and expression: Species considerations

B. E. Grayson, P. Kievit, M (Susan) Smith, Kevin Grove

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Over the last decade there has been a striking increase in the early onset of metabolic disease, including obesity and diabetes. The regulation of energy homeostasis is complex and involves the intricate integration of peripheral and central systems, including the hypothalamus. This review provides an overview of the development of brain circuitry involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis as well as recent findings related to the impact of both prenatal and postnatal maternal environment on the development of these circuits. There is surprising evidence that both overnutrition and undernutrition impact the development of these circuits in a similar manner as well as having similar consequences of increased obesity and diabetes later in life. There is also a special focus on relevant species differences in the development of hypothalamic circuits. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of brain circuitry is needed to fully understand how the nutritional and/or maternal environments impact the functional circuitry as well as the behavior and physiological outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-31
Number of pages16
JournalFrontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010


  • Arcuate nucleus
  • Development
  • Energy homeostasis
  • Food intake
  • Hypothalamus
  • Melanocortins
  • Neuropeptide Y
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems


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