Cultural Considerations in the Care of Children with Spina Bifida

Kathryn Smith, Kurt A. Freeman, Ann Neville-Jan, Stacey Mizokawa, Elizabeth Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Spina bifida occurs when the neural tube fails to close during early fetal development, resulting in a range of neural tube defects (NTDs). The cause of spina bifida is not fully understood, but scientists believe that NTDs are the result of genetic and environmental factors acting simultaneously. The Centers for Disease Control reports that spina bifida and other NTDs occur more frequently in some ethnic groups, such as Hispanic people, than in others. The United States is increasingly multicultural and diverse, and it is becoming more difficult to categorize individuals into a single racial/ethnic group. This article uses the term ethnicity as defined by the Institute of Medicine and avoids using race unless part of a particular study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1027-1040
Number of pages14
JournalPediatric clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2010


  • Culture
  • Folic acid
  • Hispanic
  • Latin American
  • Neural tube defects
  • Spina bifida

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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