Delayed photo-activation and addition of thio-urethane: Impact on polymerization kinetics and stress of dual-cured resin cements

André L. Faria-e-Silva, Carmem S. Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objective 1) to determine the moment during the redox polymerization reaction of dual cure cements at which to photo-activate the material in order to reduce the polymerization stress, and 2) to evaluate possible synergistic effects between adding chain transfer agents and delayed photo-activation. Methods The two pastes of an experimental dual-cure material were mixed, and the polymerization kinetics of the redox phase was followed. The moment when the material reached its maximum rate of redox polymerization (MRRP) of cement was determined. The degree of conversion (DC) and maximum rates of polymerization (Rpmax) were assessed for materials where: the photoactivation immediately followed material mixing, at MRRP, 1 min before and 1 min after MRRP. Thio-urethane (TU) additives were synthesized and added to the cement (20% wt), which was then cured under the same conditions. The polymerization kinetics was evaluated for both cements photo-activated immediately or at MRRP, followed by measurements of polymerization stress, flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (EM). Knoop hardness was measured before and after ethanol storage. Results Photo-activating the cement at or after MRRP reduced the Rpmax and the polymerization stress. Addition of TU promoted additional and more significant reduction, while not affecting the Rpmax. Greater hardness loss was observed for cements with TU, but the final hardness was similar for all experimental conditions. Addition of TU slightly reduced the EM and did not affect the FS. Conclusion Delayed photo-activation and addition of TU significantly reduce the polymerization stress of dual-cured cements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-109
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dentistry
StatePublished - Oct 2017


  • Polymerization stress
  • Pre-polymerized additives
  • Resin cement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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