Delineating the Macroscale Areal Organization of the Macaque Cortex In Vivo

Ting Xu, Arnaud Falchier, Elinor L. Sullivan, Gary Linn, Julian S.B. Ramirez, Deborah Ross, Eric Feczko, Alexander Opitz, Jennifer Bagley, Darrick Sturgeon, Eric Earl, Oscar Miranda-Domínguez, Anders Perrone, R. Cameron Craddock, Charles E. Schroeder, Stan Colcombe, Damien A. Fair, Michael P. Milham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Complementing long-standing traditions centered on histology, fMRI approaches are rapidly maturing in delineating brain areal organization at the macroscale. The non-human primate (NHP) provides the opportunity to overcome critical barriers in translational research. Here, we establish the data requirements for achieving reproducible and internally valid parcellations in individuals. We demonstrate that functional boundaries serve as a functional fingerprint of the individual animals and can be achieved under anesthesia or awake conditions (rest, naturalistic viewing), though differences between awake and anesthetized states precluded the detection of individual differences across states. Comparison of awake and anesthetized states suggested a more nuanced picture of changes in connectivity for higher-order association areas, as well as visual and motor cortex. These results establish feasibility and data requirements for the generation of reproducible individual-specific parcellations in NHPs, provide insights into the impact of scan state, and motivate efforts toward harmonizing protocols. Noninvasive fMRI in macaques is an essential tool in translation research. Xu et al. establish the individual functional parcellation of the macaque cortex and demonstrate that brain organization is unique, reproducible, and valid, serving as a fingerprint for an individual macaque.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-441
Number of pages13
JournalCell Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 10 2018


  • cortical areas
  • functional connectivity
  • gradient
  • macaque
  • parcellation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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