Development of a hearing help-seeking questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior

Michelle Arnold, Brent J. Small, Kathryn Hyer, Theresa Chisolm, Melissa T. Frederick, Shien Pei C. Silverman, Gabrielle H. Saunders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: Our objective was to develop and assess a questionnaire measuring the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) regarding older adults’ behaviours towards seeking a hearing test. Design: Older adults who failed a hearing screening completed a newly developed Theory of Planned Behavior-Hearing Help Seeking (TPB-HHS) questionnaire. A principal components analysis (PCA) examined the factor structure of the questionnaire, and a reliability analysis determined the internal consistency of the factors. An examination of six-month follow-up data determined whether the questionnaire differentiated between individuals who did and did not seek out a hearing test by comparing their TPB-HHS scores. Study Sample: Participants were 407 adults aged 50 to 89 recruited at community hearing screenings. Results: PCA and reliability analyses resulted in a 4-factor, 18 item questionnaire. Three of four factors demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. The TPB-HHS explained 60.18% of the variance and factors were interpreted to be measuring the constructs of Intentions, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitudes, and Subjective Norms. Individuals who sought a hearing test scored significantly higher on the Intentions, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Attitudes scales than those who did not. Conclusions: The TPB-HHS provides insight into underlying psychological mechanisms that drive behaviours related to hearing help-seeking in older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-295
Number of pages9
JournalInternational journal of audiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 4 2019


  • Adult or general hearing screening
  • ageing
  • behavioral measures
  • psycho-social/emotional

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of a hearing help-seeking questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this