This review highlights the principal effects of steroid hormones at central and peripheral levels in the neuroendocrine axis. The data discussed highlight the principal role of oestrogens and testosterone in hormonal programming in relation to sexual orientation, reproductive and metabolic programming, and the neuroendocrine mechanism involved in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype. Moreover, consistent with the wide range of processes in which steroid hormones take part, we discuss the protective effects of progesterone on neurodegenerative disease and the signalling mechanism involved in the genesis of oestrogen-induced pituitary prolactinomas.
- hormonal programming
- steroid hormones
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience