Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) encompasses all the consequences of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the offspring. Central nervous system dysfunctions and structural and functional brain abnormalities are the most deleterious consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure leading to cognitive and behavioral impairment that affect individuals throughout life. This chapter describes the cognitive, neurobehavioral, and brain structural abnormalities identified in humans following in utero alcohol exposure. This chapter also describes FASD animal models used in research to increase the understanding of the consequences of alcohol exposure during gestation on the developing brain. Finally, this chapter describes the cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol as well as the interventions that have been proposed and are currently under investigation to improve the consequences of in utero alcohol exposure.