Intraluminal incision is often used for the treatment of strictures of both the upper and the lower urinary tracts. The depth of the stricture and the location of surrounding structures such as blood vessels are important factors in guiding the incision. Endoluminal ultrasonography has been shown to be effective in defining periureteral anatomy accurately. A new device is described that combines an endoluminal ultrasound transducer and cutting device (electrocautery or laser fiber) in a 9F catheter. This catheter was evaluated in two live anesthetized pigs (four kidneys) and four ex-vivo kidneys. Incisions were made at the ureteropelvic junction and middle and distal ureter. The ability to image the periureteral structures and to direct the location and the adequacy of the incision were assessed. Endoluminal ultrasound imaging was excellent, and the electrocautery wire was well seen. Well-defined, limited, full-thickness incisions were made using this device and could be directed accurately toward or away from periureteral vessels. This study demonstrates the potential for endoluminal ultrasound guidance of intraluminal incisions.
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