Diabetic eye disease: A review of screening and management recommendations

Michael J. Gale, Brittni A. Scruggs, Christina J. Flaxel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, and it is now the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although early detection of diabetic retinopathy is key to preventing vision loss, many patients do not receive appropriate examinations. Using a multidisciplinary approach, primary care physicians and eye care providers should follow evidence-based recommendations for screening and monitoring diabetic patients while working to improve patients' glycaemic index, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injections in combination with panretinal photocoagulation and focal laser treatment remain the cornerstones of modern therapy. The many landmark studies for diabetic eye disease management should guide counselling and decision making for treating diabetic macular oedema, proliferative retinopathy and other diabetes-related eye diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)128-145
Number of pages18
JournalClinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • diabetic eye disease
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • intravitreal injection
  • laser
  • macular oedema

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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