Drinking to Dependence Risk Factors in Nonhuman Primates

Kathleen A. Grant, Betsy Ferguson, Christa Helms, Megan McClintick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

6 Scopus citations


Nonhuman primates (NHPs), in particular old-world monkeys, are excellent human surrogates for understanding putative risk factors, including genetic and epigenetic factors, behavioral traits, and stress and hormonal interactions. NHPs have been very informative in alcohol research because they will repeatedly drink intoxicating doses of ethanol, including drinking until signs of physical dependence upon alcohol appear. Perhaps even more informative is that NHPs show a wide distribution in the daily intake of alcohol (with resultant blood ethanol concentrations) when they have nearly constant access to alcohol (22. hrs/day). Given the individual differences in drinking alcohol repeatedly to intoxication, this chapter will address several main risk factors for developing alcohol dependence that have been documented in humans and can be studied in monkeys. These main factors include genetic mechanisms, stress and the HPA axis, age of onset of drinking alcohol, and temperament.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNeurobiology of Alcohol Dependence
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)9780124059412
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Alcohol dependence
  • Alcohol self-administration
  • Blood ethanol concentration
  • Monkeys
  • Nonhuman primates
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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