Effect of Blood Flow on Cardiac Morphogenesis and Formation of Congenital Heart Defects

Fernando Trinidad, Floyd Rubonal, Ignacio Rodriguez de Castro, Ida Pirzadeh, Rabin Gerrah, Arash Kheradvar, Sandra Rugonyi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects about 1 in 100 newborns and its causes are multifactorial. In the embryo, blood flow within the heart and vasculature is essential for proper heart development, with abnormal blood flow leading to CHD. Here, we discuss how blood flow (hemodynamics) affects heart development from embryonic to fetal stages, and how abnormal blood flow solely can lead to CHD. We emphasize studies performed using avian models of heart development, because those models allow for hemodynamic interventions, in vivo imaging, and follow up, while they closely recapitulate heart defects observed in humans. We conclude with recommendations on investigations that must be performed to bridge the gaps in understanding how blood flow alone, or together with other factors, contributes to CHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number303
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • biofluid mechanics
  • cardiac hemodynamics
  • congenital heart disease
  • heart development
  • mechanotransduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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