Carotid artery injuries are serious complications of endoscopic endonasal surgery. As these occur rarely, simulation training offers an avenue for technique and algorithm development in resident learners. This study develops a realistic cadaveric model for the training of crisis resource management in the setting of cavernous carotid artery injury. An expanded endonasal approach and right cavernous carotid injury is performed on a cadaveric head. The cadaver's right common carotid artery is cannulated and connected to a perfusion pump delivering pressurized simulated blood. A simulation mannequin is incorporated into the model to allow for vital sign feedback. Surgical and anesthesia resident learners are tasked with obtaining vascular control with a muscle patch technique and medical management over the course of 3 clinical scenarios with increasing complexity. Crisis management instructions for an endoscopic endonasal approach to the cavernous carotid artery and blood pressure control were provided to the learners prior to beginning the simulation. An independent reviewer evaluated the learners on communication skills, crisis management algorithms, and implementation of appropriate skill sets. After each scenario, residents were debriefed on how to improve technique based on evaluation scores in areas of situational awareness, decision-making, communications and teamwork, and leadership. After the simulation, learners provided feedback on the simulation and this data was used to improve future simulations. The benefit of this cadaveric model is ease of set-up, cost-effectiveness, and reproducibility.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Neuroscience
- General Chemical Engineering
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- General Immunology and Microbiology