Nuclear receptors regulate transcription by binding to specific DNA response elements as homodimers or heterodimers. Herein, the yeast and mammalian two-hybrid tests as well as glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays were exploited to demonstrate that estrogen receptor (ER) directly binds to a subset of nuclear receptors through protein-protein interactions between ligand-binding domains. These receptors include hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, thyroid hormone receptor (TR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), ERβ, and retinoid X receptor (RXR). In yeast cells, a LexA fusion protein to the human ER ligand-binding domain (LexA/ER-LBD) was an inert transactivator of a LacZ reporter gene controlled by upstream LexA-binding sites. However, LexA/ER-LBD differentially modulated the LacZ reporter gene expression when coexpressed with native TRs, RARs, or RXRs. Similarly, cotransfection of these receptors in CV1 cells up- or down-regulated transactivations by ER. From these results, we propose that ER is a common interaction partner for a subset of receptors, and these interactions should mediate novel signaling pathways in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology