Expert consensus on growth and development curricula for predoctoral and advanced education orthodontic programs

Vesna Lea S. Ferrer, Christopher Van Ness, Laura R. Iwasaki, Cynthia C. Gadbury-Amyot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Dental students and orthodontic residents must demonstrate competence in various areas prior to graduation. However, the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) definition of competence is broad. The aims of this study were to obtain expert consensus on Growth and Development topics and subtopics in predoctoral and advanced education programs in orthodontics and to determine the level of cognition on the subtopics necessary to demonstrate learner competence. A modified Delphi method with a consensus threshold of 70% was used. In Round One, academic orthodontists who met the expert panel inclusion criteria were surveyed to determine whether a topic was necessary to the curricula. Round Two identified the subtopics under each topic and the level of cognition necessary to demonstrate learner competence using Bloom's taxonomy, which defines the ascending levels of remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create. Round Three involved analyses and interpretation of Round Two results. The academic orthodontists determined that six topics (n=24) and 29 subtopics (n=15) were necessary for Growth and Development curricula. For all subtopics, they determined the mean level of cognition for predoctoral education was understand; for advanced education, it was analyze. This consensus on Growth and Development curricular content suggests that these levels are necessary for a beginning dentist and a beginning orthodontist to be deemed competent. Findings from this study can serve to guide curricular development and instruction by using the identified learning objectives to build instructional and assessment measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)546-552
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of dental education
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019


  • Advanced dental education
  • Curriculum
  • Delphi technique
  • Dental education
  • Growth and development
  • Orthodontics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Dentistry(all)


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