Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial

Jennifer R. Laude, Steffani R. Bailey, Erin Crew, Ann Varady, Anna Lembke, Danielle McFall, Anna Jeon, Diana Killen, Joel D. Killen, Sean P. David

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Aim: To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. Design: Two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. Setting: Community clinic in the United States. Participants: A total of 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18). Intervention: All participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half the participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) to week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions). Measurements: The primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, 7-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52- and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. Findings: PP abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55, 1.78]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up (OR = 0.79; 95% CI= 0.44, 1.40). Conclusion: Prolonging cognitive–behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1451-1459
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2017


  • Abstinence
  • adaptive treatment
  • bupropion SR
  • clinical trial
  • cognitive behavioral therapy
  • extended treatment
  • nicotine dependence
  • nicotine replacement therapy smoking cessation
  • smoking cessation
  • varenicline

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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