External Evaluation of Risperidone Population Pharmacokinetic Models Using Opportunistic Pediatric Data

On Behalf of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act–Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee*

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1 Scopus citations


Risperidone is approved to treat schizophrenia in adolescents and autistic disorder and bipolar mania in children and adolescents. It is also used off-label in younger children for various psychiatric disorders. Several population pharmacokinetic models of risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone have been published. The objectives of this study were to assess whether opportunistically collected pediatric data can be used to evaluate risperidone population pharmacokinetic models externally and to identify a robust model for precision dosing in children. A total of 103 concentrations of risperidone and 112 concentrations of 9-OH-risperidone, collected from 62 pediatric patients (0.16–16.8 years of age), were used in the present study. The predictive performance of five published population pharmacokinetic models (four joint parent-metabolite models and one parent only) was assessed for accuracy and precision of the predictions using statistical criteria, goodness of fit plots, prediction-corrected visual predictive checks (pcVPCs), and normalized prediction distribution errors (NPDEs). The tested models produced similarly precise predictions (Root Mean Square Error [RMSE]) ranging from 0.021 to 0.027 nmol/ml for risperidone and 0.053–0.065 nmol/ml for 9-OH-risperidone). However, one of the models (a one-compartment mixture model with clearance estimated for three subpopulations) developed with a rich dataset presented fewer biases (Mean Percent Error [MPE, %] of 1.0% vs. 101.4, 146.9, 260.4, and 292.4%) for risperidone. In contrast, a model developed with fewer data and a more similar population to the one used for the external evaluation presented fewer biases for 9-OH-risperidone (MPE: 17% vs. 69.9, 47.8, and 82.9%). None of the models evaluated seemed to be generalizable to the population used in this analysis. All the models had a modest predictive performance, potentially suggesting that sources of inter-individual variability were not entirely captured and that opportunistic data from a highly heterogeneous population are likely not the most appropriate data to evaluate risperidone models externally.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number817276
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
StatePublished - Mar 17 2022


  • pediatrics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • population modeling
  • precision dosing
  • risperidone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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