Facilitating and Assessing Progress Toward Independence: SPARX

D. J. Lollar, J. K. Reinoehl, A. T. Leverette, J. C. Martin, V. A. Posid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


As children with spina bifida are thriving physically, a need for encouraging independent behavior has arisen. The dynamics of dependency undermine youngster's potential for autonomous functioning. As programs are being developed, there is a need to measure the dimensions which contribute to independent behavior. As an outgrowth of the SPARX independence-training program at Shepherd Spinal Center, Atlanta, such a tool is being developed. The Independent Behavior Inventory focuses on those dimensions contributing to development of independence, including problem-solving, communication, self-help, family support, etc. Although the sample is small, reliability and validity statistics have been computed, and look promising. Use of the instrument in clinical settings in encouraged. Professionals are encouraged to intervene early with families so that the dynamics of dependency can be undermined and independence facilitated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-20
Number of pages3
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatric Surgery
StatePublished - Dec 1989


  • Behaviour
  • Independence
  • Spina bifida

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Surgery


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