Fetal hemodynamics and adverse outcome in primary school-aged children with fetal growth restriction: a prospective longitudinal study

Noora Korkalainen, Juha Räsänen, Tuula Kaukola, Hanna Kallankari, Mikko Hallman, Kaarin Mäkikallio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Introduction: Fetal growth restriction is associated with short-term and long-term mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that adverse outcome in children with fetal growth restriction at primary school age is associated with fetoplacental circulatory abnormalities. Material and methods: Comprehensive ultrasonographic assessment of fetoplacental hemodynamics was performed in 72 growth-restricted fetuses prenatally, and short-term outcome data were collected. At the median age of 9 years, mortality and morbidity were determined using medical charts and questionnaires. The impact of abnormal fetoplacental hemodynamics on mortality and morbidity with significant developmental disorders or delay were studied. Results: Fetal growth restriction children with adverse long-term outcome were delivered earlier and with lower birthweights than were those with non-compromised outcome. Seventy percent of the fetal growth restriction group showed non-compromised long-term outcomes and participated in mainstream education at the appropriate age level. Absent/retrograde diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (p < 0.001), negative A-wave in the ductus venosus (p = 0.006), cardiomegaly (p = 0.02), hydrops (p = 0.006) and cardiovascular profile score <6 (p = 0.002) were associated with increased risk of adverse outcome. After adjustment for gestational age, these parameters demonstrated hazard ratios of 5.0–16.5 for adverse long-term outcome; increased systemic venous pulsatility and low cardiovascular profile score had the highest predictive power. Conclusions: Absent or reversed end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery, reversed A-wave in the ductus venosus, cardiomegaly, hydrops, and low cardiovascular profile score are associated with adverse outcomes at primary school age in fetal growth restriction children. These fetal parameters play a significant role in the prediction of long-term outcomes for fetal growth restriction children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-77
Number of pages9
JournalActa obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Doppler
  • Fetal growth restriction
  • circulation
  • fetal monitoring
  • outcome
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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