Fine-tuning physicochemical properties of Oxazine-4 for nerve-specific imaging

William S. Greer, Antonio Montaño, Nourhan A. Shams, Dani Szafran-Reeder, Anas Masillati, Lei G. Wang, Summer L. Gibbs

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Accidental damage of vital nerve structures remains a significant surgical morbidity. Patient-to-patient neuroanatomical variability requires considerable dependence on a surgeon's first-hand experiences that primarily rely on proximal features for orientation, which can be further complicated in patients with nerve damage. As such, enhanced nerve visualization proves to be a vital avenue for advancing surgical precision and patient outcomes. Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) has the potential to improve surgical guidance, but there are no current nerve-specific fluorophores approved for clinical use. Previous work has identified the oxazine scaffold as a promising avenue for nerve-specific contrast agent development, due to its sufficiently low molecular weight to cross the blood-nerve-barrier (BNB), tunable photophysical properties, and high nerve specificity. Herein we report our efforts to investigate the structure-function relationship of Oxazine-4 through fine-tuned terminal alkylamino modifications, both based on optical and physicochemical properties as well as their affected nerve specificities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMolecular-Guided Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationMolecules, Devices, and Applications VIII
EditorsSylvain Gioux, Summer L. Gibbs, Brian W. Pogue
ISBN (Electronic)9781510647572
StatePublished - 2022
EventMolecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications VIII 2022 - Virtual, Onlline
Duration: Feb 20 2022Feb 24 2022

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferenceMolecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications VIII 2022
CityVirtual, Onlline


  • Contrast agent
  • Fluorescence imaging
  • Fluorescence-guided surgery
  • Nerve-specific fluorophores

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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