Gender and the injured brain

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations


Anesthesiologists are frequently confronted with patients who are at risk for neurological complications due to perioperative stroke or prior traumatic brain injury. In this review, we address the growing and fascinating body of data that suggests gender and sex steroids influence the pathophysiology of injury and outcome for these patients. Cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy are reviewed in the context of potential sex differences in mechanisms and outcomes of brain injury and the role of estrogen, progesterone, and androgens in shaping these processes. Lastly, implications for current and future perioperative and intensive care are identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-214
Number of pages14
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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