Gingival colonization with selective HACEK microbes in children with congenital heart disease.

Robert Steelman, David A. Rosen, E. R. Nelson, L. A. Kenamond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


It was previously shown that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) harbored Hemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacter, Eikenella, and Kingella (HACEK) microbes to a greater extent and had more severe gingival inflammation than a normal group of children. The purpose of this study was to determine if HACEK microbes are more prevalent in children with CHD than in normal children when there is no difference in gingival inflammation. Two groups of 12 children were matched with respect to gingival inflammation. Each child had a gingival index recorded as described by Massler. The experimental group consisted of 12 children with CHD 2.5-10 years old (average 5.5) and the control group consisted of 12 healthy children 2-13 years old (average 5.6). Subgingival samples were obtained and cultured for HACEK microbes. Fischer's exact test was performed with the significance level defined at P<0.05. The average gingival indices for the experimental and control groups were 6.5 and 6.4, respectively (N.S.). Nine of 12 children with CHD had Eikenella corrodens (E.c.) compared to 3/12 control patients ( P<0.05). Three of 12 CHD patients but no control patient had Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) (N.S.). There were no significant differences in E.c. or A.a. presence between cyanotic and acyanotic CHD patients. This study found that the greater extent of specific HACEK microbes harbored by children with CHD is not associated with cyanosis or the degree of gingival inflammation. Further study is needed to delineate fully the medical significance of this observation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-40
Number of pages3
JournalClinical oral investigations
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Gingival colonization with selective HACEK microbes in children with congenital heart disease.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this