Growth Trajectories of Cognitive and Motor Control in Adolescence: How Much Is Development and How Much Is Practice?

Séverine Lannoy, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Anne Pascale Le Berre, Wesley K. Thompson, Ty Brumback, Tilman Schulte, Kilian M. Pohl, Michael D. De Bellis, Kate B. Nooner, Fiona C. Baker, Devin Prouty, Ian M. Colrain, Bonnie J. Nagel, Sandra A. Brown, Duncan B. Clark, Susan F. Tapert, Edith V. Sullivan, Eva M. Müller-Oehring

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: Executive control continues to develop throughout adolescence and is vulnerable to alcohol use.Although longitudinal assessment is ideal for tracking executive function development and onset of alcoholuse, prior testing experience must be distinguished from developmental trajectories. Method: We used theStroop Match-to-Sample task to examine the improvement of processing speed and specific cognitive and motor control over 4 years in 445 adolescents. The twice-minus-once-tested method was used and expandedto four test sessions to delineate prior experience (i.e., learning) from development. A General AdditiveModel evaluated the predictive value of age and sex on executive function development and potentialinfluences of alcohol use on development. Results: Results revealed strong learning between the first twoassessments. Adolescents significantly improved their speed processing over 4 years. Compared with boys,girls enhanced ability to control cognitive interference and motor reactions. Finally, the influence of alcoholuse initiation was tested over 4 years for development in 110 no/low, 110 moderate/heavy age and sexmatcheddrinkers; alcohol effects were not detected in the matched groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-54
Number of pages11
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Adolescence
  • Alcohol
  • Development
  • Executive control
  • Learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology


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