Homocysteine and atherosclerosis

Glenn T. Gerhard, Paul Barton Duell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations


Elevated plasma total homocysteine is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Risk rises continuously across the spectrum of homocysteine concentrations and may become appreciable at levels greater than 10 μmol/l. A compelling case can be made for screening all individuals with atherosclerotic disease or at high risk. A reasonable, but unproven, goal for treatment is a plasma total homocysteine concentration less than 10 μmol/l. Folic acid is the mainstay of treatment, but vitamins B12 and B6 may have added benefit in selected patients. The results of ongoing randomized placebo-controlled trials will not be available for several years, but will help determine whether homocysteine lowering reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)417-428
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent opinion in lipidology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Cell Biology


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