Robert Klein, Chaim Vanek

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter examines the clinical and laboratory presentations of hypocalcemia and describes the clinical and laboratory findings that define an emergency situation in low serum calcium concentration. The initial approach to emergency treatment of hypocalcemia is presented. The differential diagnosis of hypocalcemia is tabulated, and the importance of distinguishing between the various diagnostic possibilities and its impact on the ongoing management of the condition is emphasized. The pathophysiology of the most common causes of hypocalcemia is explored in detail.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationContemporary Endocrinology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameContemporary Endocrinology
ISSN (Print)2523-3785
ISSN (Electronic)2523-3793


  • Calcium gluconate
  • Ionized calcium concentration
  • Parathyroid gland
  • Serum calcium
  • Serum calcium concentration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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