Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine

Enoch Muyanja, Aloysius Ssemaganda, Pearline Ngauv, Rafael Cubas, Helene Perrin, Divya Srinivasan, Glenda Canderan, Benton Lawson, Jakub Kopycinski, Amanda S. Graham, Dawne K. Rowe, Michaela J. Smith, Sharon Isern, Scott Michael, Guido Silvestri, Thomas H. Vanderford, Erika Castro, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Joel Singer, Jill GillmourNoah Kiwanuka, Annet Nanvubya, Claudia Schmidt, Josephine Birungi, Josephine Cox, Elias K. Haddad, Pontiano Kaleebu, Patricia Fast, Rafick Pierre Sekaly, Lydie Trautmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Scopus citations


Background. Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. Methods. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. Results. We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3147-3158
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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