Initial mercury evaporation from experimental Ag-Sn-Cu amalgams containing Pd

M. Koike, J. L. Ferracane, J. D. Adey, H. Fujii, T. Okabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


This study examined the Hg evaporation during setting from experimental Ag-Sn-Cu alloy powders with and without Pd. Four series of alloy powders were fabricated to examine the effect on the Hg evaporation of the alloy compositions (all percentages in this report are weight percents): Pd (0-1.5), Cu (9.0-14.0), Ag (57.0-63.7), and Sn (24.9-29.5). These variations in composition produced alloy powders with γ-Ag3Sn to β-Ag4Sn ratios varying from 0.0 to 23.9. The total amounts of Hg released from 10min after trituration were measured from cylindrical specimens (4 x 8mm; n=4) at 37°C using a Hg vapor analyzer. The results were compared to those from commercial alloys (one high-Cu and one low-Cu alloy). All amalgams made from alloys containing 1.5% Pd exhibited lower Hg vapor release than any other amalgams, with the exception of the low-Cu amalgam. The results clearly showed that the alloy formulation affected the mercury evaporation behavior during setting of the resultant amalgams. A small addition of Pd to the alloy can produce amalgams with 50-60% less Hg vapor release during setting than a leading commercial high-Cu amalgam, Tytin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3147-3153
Number of pages7
Issue number16
StatePublished - Jul 2004


  • Copper
  • Dental alloy
  • Dental amalgam
  • Mercury
  • Palladium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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