Instructional Strategies to Enhance Dermoscopic Image Interpretation Education: a Review of the Literature

Tiffaney Tran, Niels K. Ternov, Jochen Weber, Catarina Barata, Elizabeth G. Berry, Hung Q. Doan, Ashfaq A. Marghoob, Elizabeth V. Seiverling, Shelly Sinclair, Jennifer A. Stein, Elizabeth R. Stoos, Martin G. Tolsgaard, Maya Wolfensperger, Ralph P. Braun, Kelly C. Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: In image interpretation education, many educators have shifted away from traditional methods that involve passive instruction and fragmented learning to interactive ones that promote active engagement and integrated knowledge. By training pattern recognition skills in an effective manner, these interactive approaches provide a promising direction for dermoscopy education. Objectives: A narrative review of the literature was performed to probe emerging directions in medical image interpretation education that may support dermoscopy education. This article represents the second of a two-part review series. Methods: To promote innovation in dermoscopy education, the International Skin Imaging Collaborative (ISIC) assembled an Education Working Group that comprises international dermoscopy experts and educational scientists. Based on a preliminary literature review and their experiences as educators, the group developed and refined a list of innovative approaches through multiple rounds of discussion and feedback. For each approach, literature searches were performed for relevant articles. Results: Through a consensus-based approach, the group identified a number of theory-based approaches, as discussed in the first part of this series. The group also acknowledged the role of motivation, metacognition, and early failures in optimizing the learning process. Other promising teaching tools included gamification, social media, and perceptual and adaptive learning modules (PALMs). Conclusions: Over the years, many dermoscopy educators may have intuitively adopted these instructional strategies in response to learner feedback, personal observations, and changes in the learning environment. For dermoscopy training, PALMs may be especially valuable in that they provide immediate feedback and adapt the training schedule to the individual’s performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2022189
JournalDermatology Practical and Conceptual
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • dermoscopy education
  • educational methods
  • gamification
  • image interpretation education
  • instructional strategies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Dermatology


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