Background: Reduced physical activity and increased intake of calorically-dense diets are the main risk factors for obesity, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic overnutrition and hyperglycemia can alter gene expression, contributing to long-term obesity complications. While caloric restriction can reduce obesity and glucose intolerance, it is currently unknown whether it can effectively reprogram transcriptome to a pre-obesity level. The present study addressed this question by the preliminary examination of the transcriptional dynamics in skeletal muscle after exposure to overnutrition and following caloric restriction. Results: Six male rhesus macaques of 12-13 years of age consumed a high-fat western-style diet for 6 months and then were calorically restricted for 4 months without exercise. Skeletal muscle biopsies were subjected to longitudinal gene expression analysis using next-generation whole-genome RNA sequencing. In spite of significant weight loss and normalized insulin sensitivity, the majority of WSD-induced (n = 457) and WSD-suppressed (n = 47) genes remained significantly dysregulated after caloric restriction (FDR ≤0.05). The MetacoreTM pathway analysis reveals that western-style diet induced the sustained activation of the transforming growth factor-β gene network, associated with extracellular matrix remodeling, and the downregulation of genes involved in muscle structure development and nutritional processes. Conclusions: Western-style diet, in the absence of exercise, induced skeletal muscle transcriptional programing, which persisted even after insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were completely reversed with caloric restriction.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - May 25 2017|
- Caloric restriction
- High-fat diet
- Insulin resistance
- Skeletal muscle
ASJC Scopus subject areas