Malpresentation and malposition

Yvonne W. Cheng, Aaron B. Caughey

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


While the large majority of fetuses are head down with a flexed head and in the occiput anterior position and vertex presentation, there are others which either do not present head down or do not present in the optimal position. When there is a noncephalic, nonvertex presentation, it is considered as malpresentation. When the fetus is rotated in the transverse or posterior position, it is considered as malposition. This chapter explores the epidemiology and outcomes related to the malpresentations and malpositions as well as potential modes of management. Breech is the common type of fetal malpresentation, and can be categorized based on the relationship between the lower extremities and the buttocks of the fetus. Fetal malpresentation, particularly shoulder or footling presentation, is the strongest risk factors for cord prolapse. For those who have challenges when diagnosing malposition with a vaginal exam, ultrasound is a useful adjunct.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationManagement of Labor and Delivery
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9781118327241
ISBN (Print)9781118268643
StatePublished - Oct 27 2015


  • Delivery management
  • Fetal malposition
  • Fetal malpresentation
  • Ultrasound examination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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