Management of conjunctival malignant melanoma: A review and update

James R. Wong, Afshan A. Nanji, Anat Galor, Carol L. Karp

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations


Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a pigmented lesion of the ocular surface. It is an uncommon but potentially devastating tumor that may invade the local tissues of the eye, spread systemically through lymphatic drainage and hematogenous spread, and recur in spite of treatment. Despite its severity, the rarity of available cases has limited the evidence for diagnosis and management. This review will provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis, management, prognosis, staging, and surveillance of conjunctival melanoma, with an emphasis on recent advances in biological therapies to treat this disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-204
Number of pages20
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • BRAF inhibitors
  • Conjunctival malignant melanoma
  • Dabrafenib
  • IFNa-2b
  • Ipilimumab
  • Melanoma mitomycin C
  • Ocular neoplasm
  • Vemurafenib

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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