Methacrylamide–methacrylate hybrid monomers for dental applications

Ana P. Fugolin, Steven Lewis, Matthew G. Logan, Jack L. Ferracane, Carmem S. Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objectives: The susceptibility of methacrylates to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation may be a contributing factor limiting the clinical lifespan of resin composite restorations. The elimination of labile ester bonds is a potential advantage of methacrylamides, which have been shown to produce more stable restorative interfaces. The rationale of this study is to design hydrolytically and enzymatically stable adhesive monomers, with the added benefit of being able to form crosslinked networks. The objective of this study was to synthesize difunctional, hybrid methacrylate-methacrylamide monomers, and evaluate them as potential monomers for dental adhesives. Materials and methods: HEMA, TEGDMA (controls) or secondary methacrylamides (HEMAM – commercially available, 2EM and 2dMM – newly synthesized) either bearing a hydroxyl group or a methacrylate functionality (Hybrids-Hy), were added at 40 mass% to bisGMA. The photoinitiator system consisted of 2-dimethoxyphenyl acetophenone (DMPA) and diphenyl iodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPI-PF6) at 0.2 and 0.4 mass%, respectively. Polymerization kinetics were followed in real-time by near-IR spectroscopy during light activation at 630 mW/cm2 for 300 s. Water sorption and solubility (WS, SL) were measured according to ISO 4049. Storage modulus in shear (G′) for 300 s was obtained by oscillatory rheometry. For the microtensile bond strength (μTBS), fully formulated adhesives containing 40 vol% ethanol were used to restore caries-free human third molars. Bonded specimens with 1 mm2 cross-sectional area were tested after 48 h and 6 months storage in water at 37 °C. Single bond (SB) was tested as a commercial control. Data were analysed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Results: In general, hybrid versions showed lower polymerization rate and degree of conversion, whereas the methacrylate controls, HEMA and TEGDMA, showed the highest values. The hybrid versions showed lower values of WS and SL than their monofunctional versions. HEMAM Hy showed the highest values of G′ and TEGDMA, 2EM, and 2dMM-Hy the lowest. The μTBS values between 48 h and 6 months were statistically reduced only for the HEMA and both 2dMM materials. The formulation containing the monofunctional methacrylamide (HEMAM) showed only 9% reduction in μTBS after 6 months of aging, while the other groups showed a decrease ranging between 18% and 33%. Conclusion: Overall, hybrid monomers showed lower reactivity than their analogous monofunctional versions, but had markedly lower water sorption. Shear storage modulus was affected differently by the addition of the second functionality. HEMAM-containing systems were able to maintain stable long-term dentin bond strength, which demonstrates that bonding stability is a result of the complex interplay among the factors studied. Clinical significance: The novel monomers showed here are potential alternatives to the current methacrylate adhesives, with selected formulations presenting greater bond stability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1028-1037
Number of pages10
JournalDental Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Adhesives
  • Dental materials
  • Hybrids
  • Methacrylamide
  • Methacrylate
  • Restorative dentistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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