MRI Verification of a 10–20 Targeting Protocol Used During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Sessions for Tinnitus

Sarah M. Theodoroff, Alexander A. Stevens, Garnett McMillan, David R. Pettersson, William Woodward, Robert L. Folmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Langguth et al. (2006) described a method for targeting primary auditory cortex (PAC) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using the 10–20 electroencephalography system. Study aims were to measure the degree of accuracy in placing the TMS coil on the scalp overlying PAC using the 10–20 method and determine the extent to which accuracy depends on the hemisphere of the coil placement. Twelve participants underwent anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their head in a 3T scanner. Before imaging, a fiducial marker was placed on their scalp corresponding to the TMS coil position. MRI scans were analyzed to determine the distance from the fiducial marker to PAC for each participant. On average, the 10–20 method resulted in distances in the medial–lateral, anterior-posterior, and inferior-superior dimensions that were within a few millimeters (~ 4 mm) of each other between the left and right hemispheres. The fiducial marker was, on average, 10.4 mm superior and 10.8 mm posterior to the optimal scalp location that minimized the distance to PAC. Individual asymmetries and other systematic differences found in this study raise important considerations to keep in mind that might necessitate using an MRI-guided method of coil-positioning when targeting PAC for TMS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)690-699
Number of pages10
JournalBrain Topography
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018


  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Tinnitus
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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