Muscle Strength and Physical Performance Improve Fracture Risk Prediction Beyond Garvan and FRAX: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

Dima Alajlouni, Thach Tran, Dana Bliuc, Robert D. Blank, Peggy M. Cawthon, Eric S. Orwoll, Jacqueline R. Center

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Muscle strength and physical performance are associated with fracture risk in men. However, it is not known whether these measurements enhance fracture prediction beyond Garvan and FRAX tools. A total of 5665 community-dwelling men, aged ≥65 years, from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, who had data on muscle strength (grip strength) and physical performance (gait speed and chair stand tests), were followed from 2000 to 2019 for any fracture, major osteoporotic fracture (MOF), initial hip, and any hip fracture. The contributions to different fracture outcomes were assessed using Cox's proportional hazard models. Tool-specific analysis approaches and outcome definitions were used. The added predictive values of muscle strength and physical performance beyond Garvan and FRAX were assessed using categorical net reclassification improvement (NRI) and relative importance analyses. During a median follow-up of 13 (interquartile range 7–17) years, there were 1014 fractures, 536 MOFs, 215 initial hip, and 274 any hip fractures. Grip strength and chair stand improved prediction of any fracture (NRI for grip strength 3.9% and for chair stand 3.2%) and MOF (5.2% and 6.1%). Gait speed improved prediction of initial hip (5.7%) and any hip (7.0%) fracture. Combining grip strength and the relevant performance test further improved the models (5.7%, 8.9%, 9.4%, and 7.0% for any, MOF, initial, and any hip fractures, respectively). The improvements were predominantly driven by reclassification of those with fracture to higher risk categories. Apart from age and femoral neck bone mineral density, muscle strength and performance were ranked equal to or better than the other risk factors included in fracture models, including prior fractures, falls, smoking, alcohol, and glucocorticoid use. Muscle strength and performance measurements improved fracture risk prediction in men beyond Garvan and FRAX. They were as or more important than other established risk factors. These measures should be considered for inclusion in fracture risk assessment tools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-419
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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