Neonates with mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy receiving supportive care versus therapeutic hypothermia in California

Leah Yieh, Henry Lee, Tianyao Lu, Ashley Song, Cynthia L. Gong, Tai Wei Wu, Philippe Friedlich, Ashwini Lakshmanan, Dmitry Dukhovny, Joel Hay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: The use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains controversial and inconsistent. We analysed trends in TH and maternal and infant characteristics associated with short-term outcomes of infants with mild HIE. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database 2010-2018. E-value analysis was conducted to determine the potential impact of unmeasured confounding. SETTING: California neonatal intensive care units. PATIENTS: 1364 neonates with mild HIE. INTERVENTIONS: Supportive care versus TH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factors associated with TH and mortality. RESULTS: The proportion of infants receiving TH increased from 46% in 2010 to 79% in 2018. TH was more likely in the setting of singleton birth (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.39), no major birth defects (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.30), operative vaginal delivery (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.80 to 5.10) and 5-minute Apgar score ≤5 (OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.43 to 4.13). Mortality was associated with small for gestational age (OR 5.79, 95% CI 1.90 to 18.48), <38 weeks' gestation (OR 7.31 95% CI 2.39 to 24.93), major birth defects (OR 11.62, 95% CI 3.97 to 38.00), inhaled nitric oxide (OR 12.73, 95% CI 4.00 to 44.53) and nosocomial infection (OR 7.98, 95% CI 1.15 to 47.03). E-value analyses suggest that unmeasured confounding may have contributed to some of the observed effects. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in management of mild HIE persists, but therapeutic drift has become more prevalent over time. Further studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes alongside resource utilisation to inform evidence-based practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-328
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • epidemiology
  • health services research
  • neonatology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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