Neurotoxic properties of musk ambrette

Peter S. Spencer, Monica C. Bischoff-Fenton, Oscar M. Moreno, Donald L. Opdyke, Richard A. Ford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Musk ambrette (2,6-dinitro-3-methoxy-4-tert-butyltoluene), a nitro-musk compound widely used as a fixative in fragrance formulations and found to a lesser degree in flavor compositions, produces hindlimb weakness when administered in the diet or applied to skin of rats for periods up to 12 weeks. Underlying neuropathologic changes consist of primary demyelination and distal axonal degeneration in selected regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Murine neurological disease induced by musk ambrette occurs at doses well above estimated maximum daily human exposure. Lifetime experimental neurotoxicology studies using lower concentrations of musk ambrette for prolonged periods would be needed for the estimation of human risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)571-575
Number of pages5
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 30 1984
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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