NLN/Jeffries Simulation Framework state of the science project: Participant construct

Carol F. Durham, Mary L. Cato, Kathie Lasater

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: The initial Jeffries Simulation Framework was developed by Jeffries and Rogers in 2007 to guide the evolving simulation-based education. This framework identified five constructs: student, teacher, educational practices, simulation design characteristics, and outcomes. In 2011, the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning assembled a panel of simulation experts to review the literature to establish evidence for each of the framework constructs. This report summarizes the findings of the research about the simulation student construct and the rationale for expanding the label from student to participant. Method: A database was used to collate literature citations and findings to identify who participates in simulation and their associated characteristics. Preliminary findings were presented at the 2012 International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL) annual conference and feedback from attendees was solicited. The team then summarized the findings and considered the attendee comments. Results: Findings from the literature suggest that the construct be changed from student to participant. This article used current literature and expertise to expand the original participant descriptors to four elements: demographics, roles/responsibilities, attributes, and values. The paper further presents characteristics for each element. Conclusion: It was notable that the participants in simulation were seldom the focus of the literature. Early on, it became evident that there was no consistency about what the participants in the simulation were called or what their roles were. The broadening of the term from student to participant allowed for the inclusion of the range of individuals involved in simulation. Standardization of terminology will provide more consistency, improving descriptions, and reporting of simulation activities in the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)363-372
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Simulation in Nursing
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • Construct
  • Construct model for simulation participant
  • Interprofessional simulation
  • NLN/Jeffries Simulation Framework
  • Participant characteristics
  • Simulation
  • Simulation participant
  • Student

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Education
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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