Optimization and use of near infrared imaging to guide lymph node collection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Jeremy V. Smedley, Rachele M. Bochart, Miranda Fischer, Heidi Funderburgh, Vanessa Kelly, Hugh Crank, Kim Armantrout, Oriene Shiel, Mitchell Robertson-LeVay, Nikki Sternberger, Brian Schmaling, Sheila Roberts, Vicki Sekiguchi, Michael Reusz, Tiah Schwartz, Kimberly A. Meyer, Gabriela Webb, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Nicholas Dambrauskas, Daniela AndradeMatthew Wood, Caralyn Labriola, Michael Axthelm, Nina Derby, Ben Varco-Merth, Yoshinori Fukazawa, Scott Hansen, Jonah B. Sacha, Donald L Sodora, D. Noah Sather

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Identification of lymph nodes (LNs) draining a specific site or in obese macaques can be challenging. Methods: Indocyanine Green (ICG) was administered intradermal (ID), intramuscular, in the oral mucosa, or subserosal in the colon followed by Near Infrared (NIR) imaging. Results: After optimization to maximize LN identification, intradermal ICG was successful in identifying 50–100% of the axillary/inguinal LN at a site. Using NIR, collection of peripheral and mesenteric LNs in obese macaques was 100% successful after traditional methods failed. Additionally, guided collection of LNs draining the site of intraepithelial or intramuscular immunization demonstrated significantly increased numbers of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in germinal centers of draining compared to nondraining LNs. Conclusion: These imaging techniques optimize our ability to evaluate immune changes within LNs over time, even in obese macaques. This approach allows for targeted serial biopsies that permit confidence that draining LNs are being harvested throughout the study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-277
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of medical primatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • ICG
  • MLN
  • draining
  • fluorescence
  • imaging
  • indocyanine green
  • lymph node
  • macaque
  • mesenteric
  • targeted sampling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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