Pain in Children

Tonya M. Palermo, Jeffrey L. Koh, Lonnie K. Zeltzer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Pain experiences in individuals with intellectual disabilities are no less common than in other populations, but its expression can be ambiguous, making clinical management highly subjective and challenging. Assessment tools and specific management techniques are becoming available, but given the heterogeneity of cognitive and communicative function, applications of standard approaches vary greatly. Even with improved knowledge of pain and how it might be influenced by developmental disorders associated with intellectual disabilities, our ability to manage pain among individuals with intellectual disabilities remains a significant challenge. The practical assessment and management techniques currently available are discussed. Use of a coordinated pain management plan that includes effective communication among the individual, the family and healthcare professionals remains an essential ingredient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Pain Management
Subtitle of host publicationA Practical Guide
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9781444330694
StatePublished - Nov 16 2010


  • Adults
  • Altered pain expression
  • Assessment tools
  • Children
  • Developmental disability
  • Intellectual disability
  • Mental retardation
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Pain management
  • Therapeutic failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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