Patient Input for Design of a Decision Support Smartphone Application for Type 1 Diabetes

Leah M. Wilson, Nichole Tyler, Peter G. Jacobs, Virginia Gabo, Brian Senf, Ravi Reddy, Jessica R. Castle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Decision support smartphone applications integrated with continuous glucose monitors may improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We conducted a survey to understand trends and needs of potential users to inform the design of decision support technology. Methods: A 70-question survey was distributed October 2017 through May 2018 to adults aged 18-80 with T1D from a specialty clinic and T1D Exchange online health community ( The survey responses were used to evaluate potential features of a diabetes decision support tool by Likert scale and open responses. Results: There were 1542 responses (mean age 46.1 years [SD 15.2], mean duration of diabetes 26.5 years [SD 15.8]). The majority (84.2%) have never used an app to manage diabetes; however, a large majority (77.8%) expressed interest in using a decision support app. The ability to predict and avoid hypoglycemia was the most important feature identified by a majority of the respondents, with 91% of respondents indicating the highest level of interest in these features. The task that respondents find most difficult was management of glucose during exercise (only 47% of participants were confident in glucose management during exercise). The respondents also highly desired features that help manage glucose during exercise (85% of respondents were interested). The responses identified integration and interoperability with peripheral devices/apps and customization of alerts as important. Responses from participants were generally consistent across stratified categories. Conclusions: These results provide valuable insight into patient needs in decision support applications for management of T1D.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1081-1087
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019


  • decision support
  • multiple daily injections
  • smartphone app
  • survey
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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