Patient-,Procedure-,and Hospital-Related Risk Factors of Allogeneic and Autologous Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Spinal Fusion Surgery in the United States

Sandi K. Lam, I. Wen Pan, Dominic A. Harris, Christina M. Sayama, Thomas G. Luerssen, Andrew Jea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Study Design. Cross-sectional study using data from the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database. Objective. Blood loss during spinal fusion surgery may lead to the need for transfusion. Preoperative identification of patient-related, procedure-related, or hospital-related risk factors for blood transfusion would allow for implementation of interventions designed to control excessive bleeding. Summary of Background Data. Several studies have analyzed predictors associated with transfusion in spinal fusion. Identified predictors include age, female sex, anemia, comorbidities, number of fusion levels, osteotomy, and greater hospital volume. There have been few studies examining these predictors in children undergoing spinal fusion. Methods. Using Kids' Inpatient Database data, univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. We identified 9538 pediatric hospitalizations (patients <21 yr) with spinal fusion in 2009. Overall, 25.1% were associated with blood transfusion. The following factors were associated with transfusions: female sex (aOR 1.14, P = 0.023), black race (aOR 1.35, P = 0.005), length of hospital stay (aOR 1.03, P < 0.001), anterior approach/lumbar segment (aOR 2.11, P = 0.011) and posterior approach/lumbar segment (aOR 2.75, P < 0.001) compared with anterior approach/cervical segment, midlength fusion (aOR 1.71, P < 0.001), and long length fusion (aOR 2.85, P < 0.001) compared with short length. Higher transfusion rates were observed in patients with complications of fever and hematoma but not wound infection. Conclusion. This study showed significant patient-, procedure-, and hospital-related predictors of allogeneic and autologous blood transfusion in spinal fusion in the pediatric age group. Higher health care resource utilization of length of stay and additional procedures are directed toward care of this transfused subgroup. Therapies to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirement are necessary for this pediatric population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)560-569
Number of pages10
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • blood transfusion
  • pediatric
  • spinal fusion
  • transfusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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