Pentoxiphylline reduces nitric oxide production among patients with HIV infection

A. Wanchu, M. Khullar, A. Bhatnagar, A. Sud, P. Bambery, S. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) levels are elevated among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. TNF-α is known to lower NO production. In this study we used a TNF-α inhibitor, pentoxiphylline, to treat patients with HIV infection who were free of opportunistic infections and see if NO production was altered with this drug. NO production was determined by spectrophotometric analysis using nitrite and citrulline as surrogate markers and TNF-α levels were determined by ELISA before and after 4 weeks of the treatment. Nineteen patients (ten males, mean age 36.6 ± 5.2 years) and 16 age and sex matched healthy controls were studied. Mean CD4 counts of patients were 206.5 mm3. Nitrite level among patients at recruitment was 99.7 ± 26.5 nmol/ml (range 50-167 nmol/ml) and was significantly higher than 46.4 ± 16.2 nmol/ml; the value of healthy controls (P < 0.05). Patient levels declined significantly to 44.2 ± 19.7 nmol/ml (range 10-106.6 nmol/ml) following 4 weeks of therapy (P < 0.01). Citrulline level at recruitment was 810.8 ± 425.8 nmol/ml (range 366.6-1888.7 nmol/ml), which was significantly higher than 488.6 ± 224.5 nmol/ml, the level of controls (P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant decrease in these levels among patients to 533.6 ± 299.5 nmol/ml (range 250-163.4 nmol/ml) after 4 weeks of therapy (P < 0.01). TNF-α levels showed a significant decline in the OD values from 0.34 ± 0.22 at the start of therapy to 0.24 ± 0.18 (P < 0.05). We conclude that the use of pentoxiphylline is associated with decrease in TNF-α levels and NO production. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-125
Number of pages5
JournalImmunology Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 3 2000


  • Citrulline
  • HIV infection
  • Nitric oxide production
  • Nitrite
  • Pentoxiphylline
  • Tumour necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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